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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2017| July-December  | Volume 18 | Issue 2  
    Online since December 12, 2017

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Comparison of validity of airway assessment tests for predicting difficult intubation
Chitra Srinivasan, Balaji Kuppuswamy
July-December 2017, 18(2):63-68
Aim and Objective of the Study: This prospective study was undertaken at Christian Medical College and Hospital Vellore, India. In this study we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of airway examination tests including: modified Mallampati test (MMT) Thyromental Distance (TMD), ULBT (Upper Lip Bite Test). BMI (Body Mass Index) was also included as one of the predictors. The tests were evaluated individually and in combination. Methods: Total of 354 patients was recruited. Preoperative airway assessments of patients by Mallampati test, Thyromental Distance measurement, ULBT were done. The BMI was also calculated. The tests were done by the investigator and Laryngoscopic grading done by another experienced Anaesthetist according to modified Cormack and Lehane classification. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values were analyzed for the individual tests and in combination. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 11.0. Results: The modified Mallampati had the highest sensitivity of 70% which was statistically significant with a P = 0.001. Conclusion: From this study we conclude that the modified Mallampati test was a better predictor of difficult intubation than the upper lip bite test and Thyromental Distance.
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Volume capnography: A narrative review
Shubhangi Singh, Bhavani Shankar Kodali
July-December 2017, 18(2):33-38
Volume capnography is the graph of expired carbon dioxide concentration against the expired volume. It often requires special and bulky equipment to be recorded. It can be used to estimate the dead space with fair amount of precision. Various formulae and equations have been described to estimate the dead space. While the Bohr formula is likely the most accurate for measurement of dead space, the Enghoff's equation is likely the most popular and convenient to use. Volume capnography has found uses in both the operating room (OR) and the Intensive Care Unit setting. It can be used to identify the optimal level of positive end-expiratory pressure in patients suffering from the acute respiratory distress syndrome as well as to identify its effect on the ventilation. In the OR, it can be invaluable to monitor ventilation and alveolar recruitment in the obese population. It is also a useful diagnostic adjunct in medical emergencies like pulmonary embolism. In the pediatric population, it finds uses in the monitoring of infants suffering from bronchiolitis. In spite of its multiple and diverse uses, it remains an underutilized technology; the main reasons for this being lack of experience of the providers with volume capnography and the expensive and bulky equipment that is often required. However, volume capnography has a great deal of potential and with further advances in technology, is likely to gain popularity.
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Hoarseness of voice after supraclavicular ultrasound-guided subclavian perivascular brachial plexus block
Monika Gupta, Panna Jain, Swaran Bhalla, Nitish Upadhyay
July-December 2017, 18(2):86-88
Supraclavicular brachial plexus nerve block is ideal for surgical procedures at or distal to the elbow. Ultrasound (USG) continues to grow in popularity as a method of nerve localization, and for the supraclavicular block, it has the advantage of allowing real-time visualization of the plexus, pleura, and vessels along with the needle and local anesthetic spread, but it may conversely create a false sense of security. The incidence of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) block occurring with supraclavicular approach is 1.3% of patients.[10] Incidence of RLN block with USG-guided supraclavicular block is not known. In this case report, we discuss a rare complication of RLN block which occurred while performing a supraclavicular perivascular block performed under USG guidance.
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Evaluation of the effect of transdermal nitroglycerine patch on intrathecal dexmedetomidine as additive, on postoperative analgesia after abdominal hysterectomy
Rama Chatterji, Anupama Gupta, Vinay Kumar Sharma, Chandra Shekhar Chatterji
July-December 2017, 18(2):51-55
Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of transdermal nitroglycerin on intrathecal dexmedetomidine as additive, on postoperative analgesia after abdominal hysterectomy. Materials and Methods: Totally 140 patients of the American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade I or II, posted for abdominal hysterectomy under spinal anesthesia, were randomized to four groups using computer-generated random number list. Group B received 3 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 0.5 ml normal saline and placebo patch, Group BN received 3 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 0.5 ml NS and transdermal nitroglycerin (t-NTG), Group BD received 3 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 5 mcg (0.5 ml) dexmedetomidine and placebo patch and Group BDN received 3 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 5 μg (0.5 ml) dexmedetomidine and t-NTG patch. Outcomes measured include the total duration of analgesia, onset, and duration of sensory and motor block and any adverse effects. Results: The total duration of analgesia was longest in Group BDN (349.9 ± 40.6 min). It was significantly longer than Group BD (252.3 ± 34.0 min) and Group B and BN (130.5 ± 18.8, 138.3 ± 19.2 min). Time taken for two segment regression was comparable in Group B (79.9 ± 14.4 min) and Group BN (87.1 ± 22.6 min), but it was significantly longer in Group BD (122.5 ± 17.2 min) and Group BDN (136.4 ± 25.5 min). There was no significant difference in other variables between the groups. Conclusion: Transdermal nitroglycerine itself does not exhibit any analgesic potential of its own but, it enhances the analgesic potential of intrathecal dexmedetomidine.
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Comparative study of supraclavicular brachial plexus block with or without dexamethasone
Nilesh M Solanki, Ankur Garg, Shradha D Kavad, Ajay Rathod
July-December 2017, 18(2):56-62
Background: Local anesthetics with various adjuvants are used to increase the duration of postoperative analgesia in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Perineural injection of steroid is known to influence postoperative analgesia. Materials and Methods: A total of fifty patients of the American Society of Anaesthesiologist Grade I–II undergoing various upper limb surgeries under supraclavicular brachial plexus block were randomly divided into two groups. In Group C, patients received 32 ml of mixture of 1.5% lignocaine–adrenaline 10 ml, 0.5% bupivacaine 20 ml and normal saline 2 ml, whereas in Group D, patients received the same amount of local anesthetics with dexamethasone 2 ml (8 mg). Sensory and motor block were recorded at the regular intervals. Postoperative analgesia was assessed using visual analog scale (VAS) score. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's unpaired t-test. Results: The mean onset time of sensory and motor block was 3.24 ± 1.09 min and 6.2 ± 1.44 min in Group D and 4.24 ± 1.42 min and 7.52 ± 1.50 min in Group C, respectively. There was markedly prolonged duration of analgesia in Group D (12–16 h) compared to Group C (4–5 h). The mean VAS score was 4.16 ± 1.39 at the end of 6 h in Group C, whereas it was 0 (zero) in Group D at the same time. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Addition of dexamethasone as an adjuvant to local anesthetics in brachial plexus block provides in significantly early-onset and markedly prolonged duration of analgesia without hemodynamic disturbances.
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Anesthetic consideration in a postchemotherapy pediatric patient for segmental mandibulectomy with free fibula reconstruction
Amit Kumar Mittal, Manoj Bhardwaj, Manisha Arora, Vani Bhageria
July-December 2017, 18(2):69-72
We report successful anesthetic management of a postchemotherapy pediatric patient having Ewing's Sarcoma mandible who underwent segmental mandibulectomy with free fibula reconstruction. The main challenges were securing difficult airway due to fragile mandible and maintenance of ideal blood rheostatic properties in an attempt to ensure optimal fluidity in microcirculation for the viability of flap. Other aspects of care like prevention of postoperative thrombosis of anastomotic vessels and need of tracheostomy for postoperative elective ventilation are being discussed.
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Nephrotic syndrome and Obstetric anesthesia
Vijay Kumar Nagpal, Uma Hariharan, Nikhil Bhasin, Rajesh Sood
July-December 2017, 18(2):73-77
Renal disorders in pregnancy can be both difficult to diagnose and manage. They are associated with poor maternal and/or fetal outcomes. In pregnancy, proteinuria is common and can range from mild urinary protein elevations to nephrotic levels. The diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome (NS) can be challenging, especially in pregnancy as it can be confused with preeclampsia. NS has an incidence of 0.012%–0.025% in pregnant women. It is diagnosed by the presence of more than 3 g/day of proteins in urine, serum albumin <30 g/dL, generalized edema, hypercholesterolemia, and lipiduria. Proteinuria with hypertension is characterized by the presence of hematuria, red cell casts, raised serum creatinine, and features suggestive of systemic disease. Other causes of proteinuria include preeclampsia, diabetes mellitus (Type 1 and Type 2), Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (Ig A glomerulonephritis), focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, and lupus nephritis. The maternal risks of NS include acute kidney insult, chronic renal failure, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and complications due to hypoalbuminemia. Fetal considerations in NS include fetal growth retardation, prematurity, stillbirth, fetal anasarca, and polyhydramnios. Preconception counseling and immunosuppressive drug therapy can improve overall fetomaternal outcome. We hereby present a unique case of successful anesthetic management of NS in a parturient along with concurrent hypothyroidism and hypertension, for elective cesarean section.
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Clinical pearls in anesthesia for excision and reconstructive surgery for cauliflower carcinoma on psoriatic plaques
Shagun Bhatia Shah, Anita Kulkarni
July-December 2017, 18(2):78-81
Meticulous preoperative evaluation and planning is essential in psoriasis patients presenting for surgery as the airway and axial skeleton may both be involved in addition to extensive integumentary involvement. Difficult airway as well as difficult neuraxial block may be encountered due to psoriatic arthropathy. Widespread skin lesions may not spare free space for intravenous cannulation, invasive arterial/central venous lines, spinal/epidural block, and electrode placement for electrocardiogram, bispectral index, or peripheral nerve stimulator. Noninvasive techniques such as pleth variability index for guiding fluid therapy are encouraged to avoid instrumentation induced fresh psoriatic lesions. Psoriasis therapy (steroids, methotrexate, psoralens, and antidepressants) has side effects including malignant transformation of multiple psoriatic plaques which merit consideration. Drugs known to aggravate psoriasis (benzodiazepines, clonidine, beta blockers, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) and slightest trauma to skin need to be avoided. Anesthetic challenges in a psoriatic patient and their successful management have been described here.
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Airway and esophageal compression from double aortic arch in a case of pentalogy of Fallot: Anesthetic management
Sambhunath Das, Shivani Aggarwal
July-December 2017, 18(2):82-85
Double aortic arch (DAA) is a rare disease requiring high index of clinical suspicion for diagnosis. If undiagnosed, it can pose a serious challenge during anesthetic induction because of dynamic nature of tracheal compression. When DAA is associated with other congenital heart diseases, anesthetic management becomes even more challenging. We report the perioperative anesthetic management of a very rare case of DAA associated with pentalogy of Fallot.
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The “Open Jaw” Mask ventilation: An effective technique in patients with loose tooth
Jyotirmoy Das, Sudhir Kumar, Sangeeta Khanna, Yatin Mehta
July-December 2017, 18(2):89-89
  - 2,235 284
Successful combined spinal–Epidural anesthesia for a case of scleroderma for amputation
Bhavna Kakkar, Neelam Prasad Govil, Vandana Saith, Munisha Agarwal
July-December 2017, 18(2):90-91
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Airway management in an infant presenting with congenital bilateral neck lymphangioma and tongue hamartoma
Sushama Raghunath Tandale, Vaijayanti N Gadre, Aparna H Yadav, Nilesh V Vaidya
July-December 2017, 18(2):92-93
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Role of intramuscular injections of vasopressors in combating spinal hypotension during caesarean sections: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded controlled clinical trial
Ananth Srikrishna Somayaji, Gayathri Bhat
July-December 2017, 18(2):46-50
Background: Hypotension following spinal anaesthesia (SA) is a common problem. Vasopressors play an important role in its management. The common approach in the routine clinical setting is immediate action after detection of hypotension rather than as a preventive measure. There are studies which compare bolus and intravenous (IV) infusion in the management of maternal hypotension, but literature about comparison of efficacy of intramuscular (IM) vasopressors is very limited. Hence, this study was planned in elective caesarean deliveries to compare the efficacy of IM phenylephrine, ephedrine, and mephentermine for the maintenance of arterial pressure during SA. Materials and Methods: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study was conducted where 120 parturients belonging to American Society of Anaesthesiologists II undergoing elective caesarean section under SA were evaluated after being randomized into four groups receiving either preemptive phenylephrine 4 mg IM, ephedrine 45 mg IM, mephentermine 30 mg IM, or normal saline 0.9% 2 ml IM as placebo, immediately following SA. The mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were primarily evaluated and any other complications were also recorded. Results: It points toward significantly decreased incidence of hypotension in phenylephrine group compared to the other groups (P = 0.034). The incidence of rescue IV ephedrine requirement was maximum with the placebo group, least with mephentermine compared to ephedrine and placebo group. However, there was no statistical difference between the groups with respect to doses of IV ephedrine used (P = 0.08). Maternal nausea, vomiting, and newborn Apgar score were also comparable. Conclusion: All the vasopressors are effective in reducing the severity of hypotension, though phenylephrine was found to be better for the prevention of hypotension.
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Anesthetic considerations for a parturient with pulmonary hypertension
Bhavna Gupta, Kamna Kakkar, Lalit Gupta, Anish Gupta
July-December 2017, 18(2):39-45
Pulmonary hypertension is defined as persistent rise in mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25 mmHg or more with pulmonary occlusion pressure <15 mmHg. Most of the symptoms encountered in pulmonary hypertension overlap with that of normal pregnancy such as shortness of breath, weakness, fatigue, chest pain, syncope, and abdominal discomfort. Pulmonary hypertension in pregnant patients carries high mortality rates between 30% and 56% and is also the important cause of increased perioperative morbidity and mortality. Basic principles of management include maintaining right ventricular function and reducing pulmonary vascular resistance. Preoperative risk assessment and successful management of patients with pulmonary hypertension undergoing surgery are crucial and important and involve an understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease, analysis of preoperative and operative risk factors, thorough multidisciplinary planning, meticulous intraoperative management, and early recognition and treatment of postoperative complications. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar databases with the following key words: pulmonary hypertension, anesthesia concerns, and parturient female for literature search.
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