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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 26-31

To assess and compare dexamethasone, lignocaine, and tramadol in reduction of propofol-induced vascular pain


1 Department of Anaesthesia, AIIMS, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India
2 Department of Anaesthesia, MAMC and Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Bhavna Gupta
Department of Anaesthesia, AIIMS, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/TheIAForum.TheIAForum_13_19

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Introduction: Propofol (2,6 di-isopropyl phenol) is a widely used agent for induction of anesthesia, although pain during its injection remains a concern for all anesthesiologists. Pain on intravascular injection of propofol is very incapacitating, and the trouble still remains and has never been eradicated. Materials and Methods: After taking approval from the Institutional Review Board, this randomized controlled study was conducted on patients undergoing elective surgeries under general anesthesia. Two hundred and ten adult patients of either sex aged 28–60 years weighing between 40 and 80 kg were included into three groups: Group L – received 60 mg of preservative-free lignocaine hydrochloride, Group D – received 12 mg of dexamethasone sodium phosphate, and Group T – received 100 mg of tramadol hydrochloride. Venous occlusion was done at the level of mid-fore-arm by inflating a noninvasive blood pressure cuff to a pressure of 60 mmHg. Study drug was then injected over 10 s by consultant who was blinded to the procedure. After 2 min of study drug, venous occlusion was released following which propofol 0.5 mg/kg was injected over 5 s. Spontaneous complaints of pain and behavioral signs which included facial grimace, arm withdrawal, vocal and verbal rating score were recorded by the second anesthesiologist who was unaware of the group allocation. Results: All three drugs reduced the intensity and severity of propofol-induced vascular pain. Incidence of pain in lignocaine, dexamethasone, and tramadol Groups were 15%, 32.8%, and 31.4%, respectively. There was significant pain relief (P = 0.045 and 0.042, respectively) when comparing Group L and D, Group L and T. Pain relief between Group D and T was statistically similar (P = 0.8). The incidence of hand withdrawal was significantly higher in the tramadol group (P < 0.05) as compared to dexamethasone and lignocaine. The incidence of facial grimace was similar in dexamethasone and tramadol group and was higher as compared to that of lidocaine group; however, the incidence was not statistically significant (P = 0.25 between D and L, 0.3 between T and L group). Conclusion: Use of pretreatment with drugs is required to prevent propofol-induced vascular pain. Both tramadol and dexamethasone are equally efficacious in reducing propofol-induced vascular pain, though both are less effective when compared with lignocaine. Dexamethasone has an added advantage of preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting when compared with both lignocaine and tramadol.


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