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CASE REPORT
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 73-77

Nephrotic syndrome and Obstetric anesthesia


Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Uma Hariharan
BH 41, East Shalimar Bagh, New Delhi - 110 088
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/TheIAForum.TheIAForum_32_17

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Renal disorders in pregnancy can be both difficult to diagnose and manage. They are associated with poor maternal and/or fetal outcomes. In pregnancy, proteinuria is common and can range from mild urinary protein elevations to nephrotic levels. The diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome (NS) can be challenging, especially in pregnancy as it can be confused with preeclampsia. NS has an incidence of 0.012%–0.025% in pregnant women. It is diagnosed by the presence of more than 3 g/day of proteins in urine, serum albumin <30 g/dL, generalized edema, hypercholesterolemia, and lipiduria. Proteinuria with hypertension is characterized by the presence of hematuria, red cell casts, raised serum creatinine, and features suggestive of systemic disease. Other causes of proteinuria include preeclampsia, diabetes mellitus (Type 1 and Type 2), Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (Ig A glomerulonephritis), focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, and lupus nephritis. The maternal risks of NS include acute kidney insult, chronic renal failure, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and complications due to hypoalbuminemia. Fetal considerations in NS include fetal growth retardation, prematurity, stillbirth, fetal anasarca, and polyhydramnios. Preconception counseling and immunosuppressive drug therapy can improve overall fetomaternal outcome. We hereby present a unique case of successful anesthetic management of NS in a parturient along with concurrent hypothyroidism and hypertension, for elective cesarean section.


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